The Israeli-Palestinian war, this is what made peace in the Middle East fail | Melina Gabanelli

The Israeli-Palestinian war, this is what made peace in the Middle East fail |  Melina Gabanelli

I think they almost succeeded in 2000. After hundreds United Nations resolutionsdecades of violence, Millions of refugees The cards to end the Israeli-Palestinian conflict are on the table Camp DavidLast year of Clinton’s presidency. But again, it’s “all or nothing” and it ends with nothing. Two states and a mirage: Israel and Palestine border map written in sand.

1947: The beginning

Partition proposed by the United Nations in 1947 With the General Assembly Resolution No. 181 He immediately sees two entities: 56% From the region to Jewishthe break to Arabs And between them Jerusalem managed byUnited nations. Arab communities reject the plan and conflict breaks out Civil war This is only a prelude to the first real conflict.

In 1948, the British mandate that had been established in 1920 ended on the remnants of the Ottoman Empire and allowed the first Zionists to return to the Biblical Promised Land. Lu was born on May 14 of the same year IsraelBut at the same time armies Egypt, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Iraq. led by the Jewish people David Ben-Gurion The start of the siege and mass displacement of the Palestinian people: 700 thousand fugitivesthe catastropheNakba. After a year of fighting in 1949 Israel Boundaries can be extended to Eastern Galilee, Negev And West Jerusalem. Instead, much of the territory allocated to the Palestinians is occupied by Arab allies: e.g Oman there West Bankto Cairo there Gaza strip.

The PLO and the settlements were born

In 1956, the Suez Crisis broke out due to the Israeli, French, and British attack To general Egypt supporter It strengthens the spirit of Arab nationalism and increases the isolation of the Jewish state. 1959 in Kuwait to open So with Yasser Arafat Supposedly Guide from Palestinian resistance. Tension between the Egyptians and Israelis grows until the Six-Day War. It is 1967, three years ago in JerusalemPalestine Liberation Organization – Liberation Organization The State of Palestine: does not recognize Israel, encourages armed struggle for the right to self-determination and return, and is prepared for terrorist acts. Israelsurrounded, He attacks and defeats the armies of Egypt, Jordan, and Syria With support from Iraq, Lebanon and Saudi Arabia. Cry awayEgypt Gaza And SinaiIn the Syria the Golan HeightsIn the Jordan West Bank And the Arab part of the Holy City, East Jerusalemattached. They crossed the border established in the 1948 war, Israeli territory is four times larger, after all. Settlement construction begins.

Security Council Resolution No. 242 It establishes the principle of “land for peace”: sovereignty, safety and independence for all, Israeli withdrawal from the occupied territories. any? Some, according to the English version of the text; All this, according to the French version. Israel refuses. The question is not even posed to the Palestine Liberation Organization, which also ignores the 1948 conquests. At the 1967 Khartoum summit, the Arab League responded with the “three noes”: No recognition, no negotiations, and no peace treaty. In 1970 a supporter It is happening Anwar Sadat.

The path to a peace treaty

1973, Yom Kippur War: Egyptians and Syrians surprise Israel But after the initial chaos, a counterattack tips the balance. The United Nations achieves a ceasefire Resolution 338 Decides on negotiations for a just and lasting peace. Mediation by the US Secretary of State Henry Kissinger And the Geneva Conference They launch “small step diplomacy” but nothing moves. Years of terrorist acts, hostage-taking, and more war (Lebanon 1982). With decisive steps 1978, Camp David, MarylandThe residence of the US President Jimmy CarterAfter 12 days of secret negotiations, agreements were reached between them Sadat And the Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin Pave the way for Peace Treaty 1979with whom Israel withdraws from Sinai Disassemble all 18 settlements And theEgypt Becomes the first Arab country to recognize Israel (In the 1994 He follows Jordan). The Arab League does not like this and expels Cairo. In 1981, Sadat was assassinated by an Islamic Jihad terrorist.

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Two peoples and two states

1987, in Gaza, from Jabalia refugee campThe First Intifada begins: Palestinians throw stones at soldiers, erect barricades, and organize strikes and boycotts. Hamas was born. The following year from Algiers Arafat Announce Independence of the State of Palestine On lands Gaza And West Bank with Capital of East Jerusalem. The uprising continued until 1993, 1993 Oslo Accords. With a handshake between Arafat And the Israeli Prime Minister Yitzhak Rabin Open to hope Two peoples and two states. It is the first time that Israelis and Palestinians recognize each other as legitimate interlocutors, as the PLO ends terrorism and witnesses the birth of a Palestinian state.Palestinian National Authority The Palestinian National Authority, a temporary, limited self-governing body based in Ramallah in the divided West Bank Three administrative regions. But talking about the crucial points was postponed: borders, settlements and refugees, Jerusalem.

In 1994, Israel withdrew from Jericho and Tulkarm in the West BankMost GazaAnd in 1997, 80% of Hebron. The “Oslo process” did not start. Settlements are accelerating, and Hamas and other fundamentalist groups are growing. Restrictions on freedom of movement prevent Palestinians from achieving economic self-sufficiency. In 1995, after the Second Oslo Round which expanded the territory controlled by the Palestinian National Authority, the Nobel Peace Prize was awarded. Rabin was killed by a right-wing Israeli extremist against the agreements.

Missed opportunity

July 2000, Camp David: with Bill Clinton there Arafat And the Israeli Prime Minister Ehud BarakThe idea is to close once and for all. Barak opens the door to the partial return of refugees and offers up to 91% from the West Bank For the first time, he calls into question Israeli control over East Jerusalem, not sovereignty. The compromise on the capital and restrictions such as the impossibility of building an army prevent Arafat from being caught between the frustration of the Palestinians and the advance of the fundamentalists, for acceptance. The summit failed.

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The latest attempt to normalize relations begins in 2020 Between Israel and the Arab world through the Abraham Accords promoted by the Trump presidency: bilateral agreements concluded with The UAE, the two seas, Morocco And SudanWhich has reached the negotiation stage withKingdom of Saudi Arabia. The Palestinian issue has disappeared. The United Nations believes that the settlements remain illegal because, by disrupting regional continuity, they make a two-state solution impossible. between West Bank And East Jerusalem today There are 279 of themincluded 147 settlement outposts not licensed by the Israeli government, Bringing the total number of settlers to about 700 thousand settlers who settled among 3 million Palestinians under military occupation.

October 7, 2023, Hamas attack. The promised land and betrayal: From political fanaticism, from the Arab world that has always been accustomed to The Palestinian issue is to play other games on other tables, including terrorism.

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