Sustainable fuels, a change involving science and economics – Ambient & Ambienti

An in-depth study of sustainable fuels and their effects on the environment and the economy

A rapidly expanding market such as SAFs, sustainable aviation fuel. According to the latest report from McKinseyCharting the global energy landscape to 2050: sustainable fuels“The market opportunity in this sector has a pipeline of between $40 and $50 billion in total investment and an estimated capacity of 46 million tons of sustainable fuel by 2025. It is clear that more investment is needed to comply with the requirements decarbonization commitments In fact, the study estimates a figure of between 1,000 and 1,400 billion dollars by 2040. It is clear that ground transportation will be the first to drive the change, and in terms of aviation, we still have to wait until 2035.

But let’s start from the beginning. what is he talking about?

The use of safes in sustainable aviation should reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 2030.

These are the alternative fuels produced From non-fossil sources, but with chemical and physical properties almost identical to those of conventional jet fuel, and therefore perfectly usable in existing airport refueling systems. The Sudanese Armed Forces are a concrete response to International Civil Aviation OrganizationICAO, to reduce aviation emissions and rely on a wide range of raw or secondary materialsFrom used cooking oil to animal fats, from urban organic waste to forest waste, passing through old and new energy crops (such as algae).

The use of these sources is allowed to obtain them Significant savings in terms of emissions over the entire life cycle(up to 80%) use save It is part of the Sustainable Aviation Strategy, which is expected to reduce carbon dioxide emissions by 2030.

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On the European front, new sustainability standards have been set

European Parliament Transport Committee The proposal for more sustainable fuels advanced in the mandate to negotiate the approved ReFuelEu aviation rules by 25 votes to 6 against, with 3 abstentions. MEPs demand that alternative fuels reach 37% of total jet fuel in the EU by 2040 and 85% by 2050. To facilitate decarbonization, the proposal calls for the creation of Sustainable Aviation Fund from 2023 to 2050. A list of sustainable fuels has also been drawn up: synthetic fuels, some types of biofuels, produced from agricultural or forestry residues, algae, organic waste or used cooking oils, fuel produced from waste treatment gases and exhaust gases resulting from the production process in industrial plants. On the other hand, fuels based on food and forage crops and those derived from palm oil were excluded because they do not meet the sustainability criteria.

How and where does the decarbonization of aviation begin?

there Environmental transformation of the aviation sector It begins in Rome, in the airport infrastructure of Fiumicino and Ciampino, ready to be transformed into real decarbonization laboratories. process born from agreement between where are you And the Rome airports (ADR), the company that operates Romanian airports. Fiumicino and Ciampino were the first in Europe and the third in the world to receiveAirport Carbon Accreditation 4+ “Transition”: The maximum level of certification provided by ACI Europe to reduce direct and indirect carbon dioxide emissions at airports. Eni began to produce high-performance biofuels, produced from waste such as Yoko (English abbreviation for used cooking oil No vegetable and frying oils used) or animal fats.

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Apulia, with Taranto refineryplays an important role in this change process. Here SAFs are obtained by co-feeding plants Yoko. The bio part, derived from the conversion of UCO (about 0.5%), allows for a reduction of more than 90% of greenhouse gas emissions compared to the reference standard for the fossil mixture. The finished product is already available in Bolian Refinery Tanks.

Eni’s goal is to bring a product made up of 100% bioactive ingredients to the market. at the same time the futureEni Puget”This is the name of 100% biofuel, and it can be mixed without problems with conventional jet fuel up to 50%.

in Livorno refinery yes It will distill bio-ingredients from Eni bio-refineries in Gela and Porto Marghera, where innovative proprietary technology operates. Ecofining™, capable of converting oils and biomass of various kinds into HVO (the short name for Hydrogenated Vegetable Oil, literally hydrogenated vegetable oil), a biofuel that can be used in conventional engines. Easily integrate the process into existing downstream plants.

Helicopter 100% eco-fueled taking off on June 22, 2022

And while Formula 1 also aims to reduce emissions by declaring 100% eco-fuels for 2026, last June 22 The helicopter Airbus H225It takes off even without a drop of conventional kerosene in the tanks. It is the first helicopter in the world to test fuel obtained from renewable raw materials in its two Makila 2 engines. Another aircraft of the same type, but with only one engine, flew into it. save In November 2021.

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