December 7, 2022

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Cop27, the most polluted countries don’t pay: the US is lagging behind

The countries most responsible for air pollution should be those most committed to reducing air pollution, but also to supporting the least developed countries experiencing the most severe events of climate change. It’s one of the subjects at the Cop27 table, la Annual United Nations Climate Conference Decade in Egypt: But the United States, among the most polluted countries in the world, is behind with billions of dollars in climate funds funding alongside other developed nations. In addition, the elections Half semester It could jeopardize the Biden administration’s intended efforts on climate. But which countries are the most polluted?

At what stage is climate change

On the occasion of the COP27 conference in Egypt, the “State of the Global Climate in 2022” report issued by the World Meteorological Organization (Wmo) was released. The data is alarming: According to the report, the past eight years have been the hottest since the data was collected, sea levels are rising more and more, and glaciers are melting at record rates. The reason is the high concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere that continues to increase: the direct consequences are extreme events such as extreme heat waves, droughts and floods.

Countries are reducing the curve of global greenhouse gas emissions, but it is still not enough to keep the global temperature within a maximum increase of 1.5°C. Under the current circumstances, we are still far from the target: According to the report of the UN’s Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the combined commitments of the 193 signatories, even if honored under the letter, led to a rise in temperatures of about 2.5 degrees by the end of century, compared to pre-industrial temperatures (1850-1900).

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Petteri Taalas, Secretary-General of the Paris Agreement, commented: “The greater the warming, the worse the effect: we have high levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere today, to the point where the Paris Agreement target of 1.5 degrees is barely achievable.” Wmo.

Global warming due to greenhouse gas emissions

Overall, the three major UN agencies agree that there are no “credible” efforts to keep global temperatures within 1.5 degrees.

complicated subject loss and damage

Many developing countries are wondering why they are paying in the same way as those who have polluted them for more than a century because of the Industrial Revolution and the development of the economy. Climate Aid is one of the most sensitive Cop27 files in Egypt.

African countries are champions of COP27 and are collectively participating to demand its adoption loss and damageIt is a financial mechanism that takes into account the “losses and damages” caused by climate change to which they are most exposed at the hands of more developed countries. Emerging economies have repeatedly decried the delay and insufficient funds.

Delays in climate funds

In the 1992 United Nations Climate Negotiations, most economically developed countries agreed to provide “new and additional financial resources” to developing countries to tackle climate change. The agreement was based on the greater economic capacity of the countries concerned and on their historical responsibility for causing climate change.

In 2009, it was decided to reach $100 billion annually in financing by 2020 to support the most vulnerable countries, but the goal has not yet been achieved. It also shows a report from a specialized site carbon brief In 2019 it was close to 80 billion due to lack of contribution from some countries.

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Shortage or excess of national climate finance, billions of dollars

carbon brief Comparing the share of global climate funds for individual countries with their share of carbon emissions so far. The US share, based on its past emissions, would be $40 billion, but as of 2020 — the last year for which data is available — funding was just $7.6 billion. Australia and Canada lent about a third of their debt, while the United Kingdom fell by $1.4 billion. In contrast, Germany, France and Japan donated billions of dollars more than their share of the total. Italy is also among the most virtuous countries, with a value of more than 800 million euros.

Some of these countries have given more than they owe, but in the form of loans. Indeed, one of the demands of the least developed countries is to grant more grants than loans, due to their already high level of indebtedness. From the graph above, we see that Germany, France, and Japan are among the most “generous” countries, but if we analyze the form of financing in detail, we realize that they are most likely to give climate money in the form of loans – thus making money – rather than as grants.

Climate financial contributions in the form of loans

The most polluted countries

Five countries alone cause 67.8 percent of global carbon dioxide emissions and are responsible for 66.4 percent of fossil fuel consumption: each country increased carbon dioxide emissions in 2021. They are China, the United States, the European Union, India, Russia and Japan.

Carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere: which countries are the most polluted

The country that produces the most greenhouse gases is China, which accounts for more than 33 percent of total emissions and alone produces more than the four countries that follow: the United States, the European Union, India and Russia. From the 1970s until 2005, the United States consistently held this special classification, but since 2005, significant economic development has made China the most polluting country in the world.

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As for the European Union, emissions grew by 6.5 percent in 2021, but also decreased by 5 percent compared to 2019, considering that the data for 2020 is affected by Close due to the epidemic. On the other hand, Italy is recording certainly positive data, with a significant decrease in emissions in all sectors, from industrial to residential, and even transport, especially when compared to the EU average. It is now clear, however, that local efforts are not enough and that efforts to save the planet must necessarily be global.

Percentage change in CO2 emissions in Italy

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