Status of migratory species in the world

Status of migratory species in the world

The first report on “The State of the World's Migratory Species” was presented at COP14 of the Convention on Migratory Species on Monday 12 February 2024

Migratory species are found all over the world: on land, in the water and in the sky. These species travel thousands of kilometres, rely on a wide range of habitats to feed, reproduce and rest, and at the same time, play an essential role in maintaining healthy and functional ecosystems. Their migrations often take them across national borders, so international cooperation is essential to their survival. Recognition of this need led to the negotiation of the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS), which entered into force in 1979. The Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species of Wild Animals (CMS) is a global treaty that addresses the conservation and management of migratory species and their habitats. effective. The Convention aims to conserve migratory species, in particular those listed in its annexes and those included in a series of CMS documents, through international cooperation and coordinated conservation actions.

This report, the first on the state of the world's migratory species, provides a comprehensive overview and analysis of the conservation status of migratory species. It summarizes their current status and trends, identifies the main pressures they face and highlights illustrative examples of ongoing efforts to conserve these species and promote their recovery. It aims to improve conservation outcomes for migratory species, by providing support for evidence-based decision-making by Parties to the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species and, more generally, by raising awareness of the challenges and success stories in migratory species conservation. The report was prepared in response to the decision taken at COP13 in 2020, which ordered work to be undertaken to further develop the initial conservation status review presented at COP13. This report focuses on species numbered in CMS appendices; Just as other migratory species may benefit from protection under the CMS, it also provides information on the broader range of all migratory species.

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Available evidence indicates that the conservation status of many species listed in CMS Appendices is deteriorating. One in five CMS species is threatened with extinction, and a large proportion (44%) are experiencing population declines. When considering the appendices separately, 82% of Appendix I species are threatened with extinction and 76% have a declining population trend. Meanwhile, 18% of Appendix II species are globally threatened with extinction, and nearly half (42%) are showing declining population trends. The current status and history of CMS-listed fish is particularly concerning, as nearly all CMS-listed fish (97%) are threatened with extinction. In fact, on average, there has been a sharp decline in the relative abundance of observed fish populations over the past 50 years.

Extinction risk levels are increasing for all CMS-listed species as a whole. Between 1988 and 2020, 70 CMS species showed a decline in conservation status; Much more than the 14 species that showed improved conservation status. The risk of extinction is also increasing in the broader group of non-CMS migratory species. A new analysis released by this report identifies 399 globally threatened and near-threatened migratory species (mostly birds and fish) that are not yet listed in CMS Appendices and that may benefit from international protection.

The decline in the condition of migratory species is due to extreme levels of human pressure. Because of their mobility, dependence on multiple habitats and dependence on connectivity between different places, migratory species are exposed to a wide range of threats caused by human activity. Most migratory species are affected by a range of threats, which often interact to exacerbate each other. Habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation, primarily caused by agriculture, and overexploitation (hunting and fishing, selective and incidental) represent the two most prevalent threats to migratory species and their habitats, according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. To preserve nature). Pollution, including pesticides, plastics, heavy metals and excess nutrients, as well as underwater noise and light pollution, represent an additional source of stress facing many species. The effects of climate change are already being felt by many migratory species, and these impacts are expected to increase dramatically in the coming decades, not only as a direct threat to species but also as an amplifier of other threats.

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Most importantly, habitat loss, degradation and fragmentation are increasingly disrupting the ability of migratory species to move freely along their migration routes, especially when large areas of continuous habitat become smaller, isolated patches that can no longer facilitate these movements. In addition, obstacles to migration, ranging from physical infrastructure such as roads, railways and dams, to intangible barriers such as disruption to industrial development and maritime traffic, pose formidable barriers to migrant populations. By restricting the movement of migratory animals, increasing human impacts on vital migration corridors and stopover stations pose a major threat to the migration phenomenon itself. In fact, 58% of monitored sites considered important for species listed in CMS Appendices face unsustainable levels of human pressure.

Given the breadth and scale of pressures facing migratory species, there is an urgent need for coordinated international action to reverse population decline and conserve these species and their habitats. Fortunately, large data gaps remain, and many of the threats facing migratory species are well known. Essentially, there is a wealth of knowledge about the responses and solutions required to help migrant populations recover. Collaborative actions designed to improve the conservation status of migratory species are already underway under the Convention on the Conservation of Migratory Species, ranging from international working groups addressing illegal killing of birds, to multi-stakeholder platforms to support the sustainable deployment of renewable energy infrastructure without negatively impacting migratory species. In order to stem losses and promote the recovery of migratory species, these efforts must be strengthened and expanded. This should include actions to expand the global network of protected and conserved areas, in particular those areas of importance for migratory species, in line with global goals, while working to improve the status of sites and their effective management. Maintaining and improving connectivity between these sites should be a major priority, in part through selective restoration of degraded habitats. Coordinated action to combat overexploitation is also required, including expanding international cooperative initiatives to prevent illegal or unsustainable hunting of migratory species.

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The Convention on Migratory Species provides a global platform for international cooperation, and the active participation of governments, communities and all stakeholders is crucial to addressing the many challenges facing migratory species. With recently renewed global commitments set to address threats to biodiversity through the Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework, and with the adoption of a new strategy planned for COP14 of the Convention on Migratory Species, collaborative efforts are urgently needed. Classification of schools to fulfill these obligations and meet migration aspirations.

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