Who spends more and who earns

Who spends more and who earns

During 2022, the nine nuclear-weapon states have continued to invest in modernizing their arsenals and have increased globally the number of “operational” and ready-to-use warheads. All while geopolitical and diplomatic relations between the two countries have continued to deteriorate, also in the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine.

The alarm sounded by the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (Sipri), the premier global observatory for the defense industry published June 12 Special annual report On the state of armaments, disarmament and international security.

The nine countries that possess nuclear weapons are the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, China, India, Pakistan and North Korea, in addition to Israel. These “continued to modernize their arsenals and, in 2022, many of them will deploy new weapons systems with nuclear weapons or capabilities.” The number of newspapers surveyed by Sipri in January 2023 was 12,512, of which 9,576 were ready for use (86 more than the previous year). Of the latter, it is estimated that 3,844 have been deployed with missiles and aircraft, while another 2,000, most of them belonging to Russia and the United States, have been placed on high operational alert, that is, installed on missiles or at air bases. hosting nuclear bombers.

With multibillion-dollar plans to modernize and, in some cases, expand their arsenals, the five signatories to the Treaty on the Non-Proliferation of Nuclear Weapons (the United States, Russia, the United Kingdom, France, and China, Mr. Dr) seems to be distancing itself more and more from the commitments it has undertaken, ”confirms Wilfred Wan, director of the Weapons of Mass Destruction Program of the SIPRI Institute.

The arsenals of Russia and the United States, which together own about 90% of these munitions, appear to have remained broadly stable through 2022 “despite a decrease in transparency on the issue in both countries in the wake of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine. As far as China is concerned, he estimates Sipri that the number of atomic warheads stored in Beijing’s arsenals has increased from 350 in January 2022 to 410 in January 2023 and direction It can last: By the end of the decade the Asian country is likely to have at least as many ICBMs as the United States or Russia. This growth, Hans M. Christensen, asserts, Associate Senior Fellow Of the SIPRI WMD program, “it is increasingly difficult to reconcile with Beijing’s stated goal of having the minimum number of nuclear forces necessary to ensure its national security.”

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Source: Sipri, 2023

According to the Stockholm Institute, UK arsenals are also set to fill up further after the British government announced that it wanted to go from the current 225 warheads to 260. London also announced that it would no longer disclose publicly the quantities of nuclear weapons, warheads and missiles deployed. On the other hand, France continued its program during 2022 to develop a nuclear-powered submarine with third-generation ballistic missiles and a new air-launched cruise missile, as well as to modernize existing systems.

Investments in expanding nuclear arsenals also continued in India and Pakistan, two historical rivals. While in North Korea, according to Sipri estimates, the number of nuclear warheads would have reached thirty units and the country would have enough fissile material to build between 50 and 70.

Adding to this alarming increase in terms of investment is the fact that most nuclear-weapon states are reaffirming their rhetoric about the importance of these weapons. “Some even make explicit or implicit threats about their possible use,” recalls Matt Korda, a researcher at the Stockholm International Peace Research Institute (SIPRI). This greatly increased the risk that nuclear weapons would be used for the first time since World War II.

Also of concern is the slowdown in non-proliferation diplomacy in the aftermath of Russia’s invasion of Ukraine: the United States has, in fact, suspended bilateral dialogue with Moscow, and in February 2023 Russia announced it was suspending its participation in the Treaty on Measures for Further Reduction and Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms ( A New Beginning) of 2010, the latest nuclear arms control treaty that limits Russian and US strategic nuclear forces. “In this period of extreme geopolitical tension and mistrust, with channels of communication closed or barely functioning, the risks of miscalculations, misunderstandings or accidents are very high – notes Sipri Director Dan Smith-. It is essential to restore nuclear diplomacy and strengthen international controls” .

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In addition to the analysis dedicated to nuclear weapons, the Sipri Yearbook highlights the continuing deterioration of global security in the past year: The impact of the war in Ukraine is evident in all aspects of issues related to armaments, disarmament and security reviewed internationally by the research institute. “We are entering one of the most dangerous periods in human history—Smith’s included—. It is imperative that the world’s governments find ways to cooperate to de-escalate geopolitical tensions, slow the arms race and address the increasingly dangerous consequences of environmental degradation and increasing world hunger.”

numbers and direction related to nuclear weapons is also part of the global context of increasing military spending (for the eighth year in a row) which, according to estimates published by SIPRI in the yearbook, has reached the figure register $2,240 billion.

The impact of the war in Ukraine was felt both globally and regionally: military spending in Europe grew by 13%. Most of the countries of the continent responded to the Russian invasion by increasing investments in this sector and finalizing plans for future growth in increments extending until 2033. Germany, for example, plans more efforts to allocate 2% of its share. war sector gross domestic product. Military spending also returned to growth in the Middle East (up 3.2%) four years later, driven by Saudi Arabia, and in Asian countries (up 2.7%) driven by huge investments by China and India. The only region in the world where there is a decline is Africa (minus 5.3%).

According to the International Campaign to Abolish Nuclear Weapons, I can) In 2022, the nuclear-weapon states spent a total of $82.9 billion on their nuclear arsenals (more than $157,000 per minute). The United States leads the way with $43.7 billion, which has spent more than all other countries equipped with atomic bombs combined. Followed by Russia ($9.6 billion) and China ($11.7 billion).

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Source: Ican, 2023

The Ican report pays special attention to companies that make nuclear devices (including those of the Italian Leonardo): globally, “atomic” nations have signed contracts worth at least $278.6 billion, and in some cases until 2040. And in 2022 alone, nations “Atomic” at least 15.9 USD. billion dollars in new contracts that allowed the companies to earn nearly $29 billion. Resources that are then partially invested in activities Lobbyists To governments: $113 million in the United States and France alone.

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