“If you have bleeding after menopause, go to the doctor.”

“If you have bleeding after menopause, go to the doctor.”

What is the most common gynecologic cancer?

Right now, in developed countries, it's endometrial cancer, which is cancer of the uterus on the outside. It is not related to endometriosis. Endometrial cancer is a hallmark of postmenopausal women, and fortunately it gives a very clear sign: bleeding when there shouldn't be any more. Most of the time we are able to detect it at a fairly early stage, so with good surgery and good complementary therapy we achieve a very high cure rate. Yes, it is true that it is very common and requires a very good surgery.


This surgery must be minimally invasive, avoiding opening the patient's abdomen – called laparotomy. Minimally invasive surgery is performed using endoscopic techniques, such as conventional or robotic laparoscopy, which allows us to perform the surgery with much greater precision and gives better recovery results.

Is endometrial cancer on the rise?

It is slightly increasing in developed countries because it is associated with other diseases such as obesity. This, in turn, is linked to high blood pressure and diabetes. All three are on the rise in our society, and this leads to an increase in cancer. We can reduce the incidence of endometrial cancer if we can reduce these three risk factors.

Does endometriosis cause cancer?

no. Residents should not be concerned, although it is true that we have some types of ovarian cancer that have developed due to endometriosis. But this does not mean that endometriosis is the cause, but rather ovarian cancer is a specific type of cancer that has the misfortune to develop on the uterine lining.

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What are the most common gynecological cancers?

The ovaries protrude more than their frequency and mortality. Unfortunately, this cancer is diagnosed at fairly advanced stages, a combination of chemotherapy and surgery must be applied, and survival rates are lower than we would like.

How can you prevent this?

Unfortunately, unlike the endometrium, which bleeds when not touched, ovarian cancer has no symptoms. For example, sometimes we find a diagnosis of stomach pain that is somewhat non-specific, and develops over time. It's not repetitive, but that's how it presents itself. What we as women and doctors must do is that once ovarian cancer is diagnosed, it must be treated in an excellent manner in highly experienced centers. because? Because it is a very difficult surgical treatment and sometimes requires opening the abdomen or performing a very important surgery, in addition to giving advanced and personalized chemotherapy.

Speaking of gynecological cancer in general, what should women pay attention to?

We know that cervical cancer is linked to HPV. This is the cancer that we have a social structure that is better trained to prevent and diagnose before it occurs. First of all, we do primary prevention with the papilloma vaccine. We are vaccinating girls in schools and now we are starting with boys. Secondly, we have a complete structure for screening using cytology. Fortunately, cervical cancer is not very common in our country thanks to vaccines and screenings. I maintain that the symptomatic, preventable gynecological cancer is endometrial cancer. A woman who is already past menopause and experiences bleeding at a time when her period should not be should immediately go to her gynecologist for a medical examination. Most of the time there will be nothing, but it's worth a look.

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But there are menopausal women who sometimes suffer from irregular bleeding.

In the perimenopausal period, between the ages of 48 and 53 years, when menstruation does not stop completely, there may be disturbances. You can go without a period for three months and then come again. It's normal, although it's still worth a good gynecological examination. But at age 65, you shouldn't have any bleeding. If this happens, go to your gynecologist immediately. The cure rate for endometrial cancer is very high.

Are gynecological cancers on the rise?

The prevalence of endometrial cancer and ovarian cancer is slightly higher. The rest is decreasing, and for cervical cancer there is a plan to try to eliminate it by 2030.

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